APT Groups

Threat Actor Problem Set Unclassified Names and TTPs

Groups are sets of related intrusion activity that are tracked by a common name in the security community. Analysts track clusters of activities using various analytic methodologies and terms such as threat groups, activity groups, threat actors, intrusion sets, and campaigns. Some groups have multiple names associated with similar activities due to various organizations tracking similar activities by different names. Organizations’ group definitions may partially overlap with groups designated by other organizations and may disagree on specific activity.

For the purposes of the Group pages, the MITRE ATT&CK team uses the term Group to refer to any of the above designations for a cluster of adversary activity. The team makes a best effort to track overlaps between names based on publicly reported associations, which are designated as “Associated Groups” on each page (formerly labeled “Aliases”), because we believe these overlaps are useful for analyst awareness. We do not represent these names as exact overlaps and encourage analysts to do additional research.

Groups are mapped to publicly reported technique use and original references are included. The information provided does not represent all possible technique use by Groups, but rather a subset that is available solely through open source reporting. Groups are also mapped to reported Software used, and technique use for that Software is tracked separately on each Software page.

Groups: 133
IDNameAssociated GroupsDescriptionKnown IoCs (Domain Names, IPs, E-mail info
G0018admin@338admin@338 is a China-based cyber threat group. It has previously used newsworthy events as lures to deliver malware and has primarily targeted organizations involved in financial, economic, and trade policy, typically using publicly available RATs such as PoisonIvy, as well as some non-public backdoors.
G0130Ajax Security TeamOperation Woolen-Goldfish, AjaxTM, Rocket Kitten, Flying Kitten, Operation Saffron RoseAjax Security Team is a group that has been active since at least 2010 and believed to be operating out of Iran. By 2014 Ajax Security Team transitioned from website defacement operations to malware-based cyber espionage campaigns targeting the US defense industrial base and Iranian users of anti-censorship technologies.
G1000ALLANITEALLANITE is a suspected Russian cyber espionage group, that has primarily targeted the electric utility sector within the United States and United Kingdom. The group’s tactics and techniques are reportedly similar to Dragonfly, although ALLANITEs technical capabilities have not exhibited disruptive or destructive abilities. It has been suggested that the group maintains a presence in ICS for the purpose of gaining understanding of processes and to maintain persistence.
G0138AndarielSilent ChollimaAndariel is a North Korean state-sponsored threat group that has been active since at least 2009. Andariel has primarily focused its operations–which have included destructive attacks–against South Korean government agencies, military organizations, and a variety of domestic companies; they have also conducted cyber financial operations against ATMs, banks, and cryptocurrency exchanges. Andariel‘s notable activity includes Operation Black Mine, Operation GoldenAxe, and Campaign Rifle.Andariel is considered a sub-set of Lazarus Group, and has been attributed to North Korea’s Reconnaissance General Bureau.North Korean group definitions are known to have significant overlap, and some security researchers report all North Korean state-sponsored cyber activity under the name Lazarus Group instead of tracking clusters or subgroups.
G0099APT-C-36Blind EagleAPT-C-36 is a suspected South America espionage group that has been active since at least 2018. The group mainly targets Colombian government institutions as well as important corporations in the financial sector, petroleum industry, and professional manufacturing.
G0006APT1Comment Crew, Comment Group, Comment PandaAPT1 is a Chinese threat group that has been attributed to the 2nd Bureau of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) General Staff Department’s (GSD) 3rd Department, commonly known by its Military Unit Cover Designator (MUCD) as Unit 61398.
G0005APT12IXESHE, DynCalc, Numbered Panda, DNSCALCAPT12 is a threat group that has been attributed to China. The group has targeted a variety of victims including but not limited to media outlets, high-tech companies, and multiple governments.
G0023APT16APT16 is a China-based threat group that has launched spearphishing campaigns targeting Japanese and Taiwanese organizations.
G0025APT17Deputy DogAPT17 is a China-based threat group that has conducted network intrusions against U.S. government entities, the defense industry, law firms, information technology companies, mining companies, and non-government organizations.
G0026APT18TG-0416, Dynamite Panda, Threat Group-0416APT18 is a threat group that has operated since at least 2009 and has targeted a range of industries, including technology, manufacturing, human rights groups, government, and medical.
G0073APT19Codoso, C0d0so0, Codoso Team, Sunshop GroupAPT19 is a Chinese-based threat group that has targeted a variety of industries, including defense, finance, energy, pharmaceutical, telecommunications, high tech, education, manufacturing, and legal services. In 2017, a phishing campaign was used to target seven law and investment firms. Some analysts track APT19 and Deep Panda as the same group, but it is unclear from open source information if the groups are the same.
G0007APT28IRON TWILIGHT, SNAKEMACKEREL, Swallowtail, Group 74, Sednit, Sofacy, Pawn Storm, Fancy Bear, STRONTIUM, Tsar Team, Threat Group-4127, TG-4127APT28 is a threat group that has been attributed to Russia’s General Staff Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU) 85th Main Special Service Center (GTsSS) military unit 26165. This group has been active since at least 2004.APT28 reportedly compromised the Hillary Clinton campaign, the Democratic National Committee, and the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee in 2016 in an attempt to interfere with the U.S. presidential election. In 2018, the US indicted five GRU Unit 26165 officers associated with APT28 for cyber operations (including close-access operations) conducted between 2014 and 2018 against the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), the US Anti-Doping Agency, a US nuclear facility, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the Spiez Swiss Chemicals Laboratory, and other organizations. Some of these were conducted with the assistance of GRU Unit 74455, which is also referred to as Sandworm Team.
G0016APT29IRON RITUAL, IRON HEMLOCK, NobleBaron, Dark Halo, StellarParticle, NOBELIUM, UNC2452, YTTRIUM, The Dukes, Cozy Bear, CozyDukeAPT29 is threat group that has been attributed to Russia’s Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR). They have operated since at least 2008, often targeting government networks in Europe and NATO member countries, research institutes, and think tanks. APT29 reportedly compromised the Democratic National Committee starting in the summer of 2015.In April 2021, the US and UK governments attributed the SolarWinds supply chain compromise cyber operation to the SVR; public statements included citations to APT29, Cozy Bear, and The Dukes. Victims of this campaign included government, consulting, technology, telecom, and other organizations in North America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Industry reporting referred to the actors involved in this campaign as UNC2452, NOBELIUM, StellarParticle, and Dark Halo.Trojan Cookies C2 IP (117.55.241.58)

Onion Duke C2 Domain & IP (31.170.162.243 – rombeast.site50.net)
G0022APT3Gothic Panda, Pirpi, UPS Team, Buckeye, Threat Group-0110, TG-0110APT3 is a China-based threat group that researchers have attributed to China’s Ministry of State Security. This group is responsible for the campaigns known as Operation Clandestine Fox, Operation Clandestine Wolf, and Operation Double Tap. As of June 2015, the group appears to have shifted from targeting primarily US victims to primarily political organizations in Hong Kong.In 2017, MITRE developed an APT3 Adversary Emulation Plan.
G0013APT30APT30 is a threat group suspected to be associated with the Chinese government. While Naikon shares some characteristics with APT30, the two groups do not appear to be exact matches.
G0050APT32SeaLotus, OceanLotus, APT-C-00APT32 is a suspected Vietnam-based threat group that has been active since at least 2014. The group has targeted multiple private sector industries as well as foreign governments, dissidents, and journalists with a strong focus on Southeast Asian countries like Vietnam, the Philippines, Laos, and Cambodia. They have extensively used strategic web compromises to compromise victims.
G0064APT33HOLMIUM, ElfinAPT33 is a suspected Iranian threat group that has carried out operations since at least 2013. The group has targeted organizations across multiple industries in the United States, Saudi Arabia, and South Korea, with a particular interest in the aviation and energy sectors.
G0067APT37Richochet Chollima, InkySquid, ScarCruft, Reaper, Group123, TEMP.ReaperAPT37 is a North Korean state-sponsored cyber espionage group that has been active since at least 2012. The group has targeted victims primarily in South Korea, but also in Japan, Vietnam, Russia, Nepal, China, India, Romania, Kuwait, and other parts of the Middle East. APT37 has also been linked to the following campaigns between 2016-2018: Operation Daybreak, Operation Erebus, Golden Time, Evil New Year, Are you Happy?, FreeMilk, North Korean Human Rights, and Evil New Year 2018.North Korean group definitions are known to have significant overlap, and some security researchers report all North Korean state-sponsored cyber activity under the name Lazarus Group instead of tracking clusters or subgroups.
G0082APT38NICKEL GLADSTONE, BeagleBoyz, Bluenoroff, Stardust ChollimaAPT38 is a North Korean state-sponsored threat group that specializes in financial cyber operations; it has been attributed to the Reconnaissance General Bureau. Active since at least 2014, APT38 has targeted banks, financial institutions, casinos, cryptocurrency exchanges, SWIFT system endpoints, and ATMs in at least 38 countries worldwide. Significant operations include the 2016 Bank of Bangladesh heist, during which APT38 stole $81 million, as well as attacks against Bancomext (2018) and Banco de Chile (2018); some of their attacks have been destructive.North Korean group definitions are known to have significant overlap, and some security researchers report all North Korean state-sponsored cyber activity under the name Lazarus Group instead of tracking clusters or subgroups.
G0087APT39REMIX KITTEN, ITG07, ChaferAPT39 is one of several names for cyberespionage activity conducted by the Iranian Ministry of Intelligence and Security (MOIS) through the front company Rana Intelligence Computing since at least 2014. APT39 has primarily targeted the travel, hospitality, academic, and telecommunications industries in Iran and across Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America to track individuals and entities considered to be a threat by the MOIS.
G0096APT41WICKED PANDAAPT41 is a threat group that researchers have assessed as Chinese state-sponsored espionage group that also conducts financially-motivated operations. Active since at least 2012, APT41 has been observed targeting healthcare, telecom, technology, and video game industries in 14 countries. APT41 overlaps at least partially with public reporting on groups including BARIUM and Winnti Group.
G0143Aquatic PandaAquatic Panda is a suspected China-based threat group with a dual mission of intelligence collection and industrial espionage. Active since at least May 2020, Aquatic Panda has primarily targeted entities in the telecommunications, technology, and government sectors.
G0001AxiomGroup 72Axiom is a suspected Chinese cyber espionage group that has targeted the aerospace, defense, government, manufacturing, and media sectors since at least 2008. Some reporting suggests a degree of overlap between Axiom and Winnti Group but the two groups appear to be distinct based on differences in reporting on TTPs and targeting.
G0135BackdoorDiplomacyBackdoorDiplomacy is a cyber espionage threat group that has been active since at least 2017. BackdoorDiplomacy has targeted Ministries of Foreign Affairs and telecommunication companies in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and Asia.
G0063BlackOasisBlackOasis is a Middle Eastern threat group that is believed to be a customer of Gamma Group. The group has shown interest in prominent figures in the United Nations, as well as opposition bloggers, activists, regional news correspondents, and think tanks. A group known by Microsoft as NEODYMIUM is reportedly associated closely with BlackOasis operations, but evidence that the group names are aliases has not been identified.
G0098BlackTechPalmerwormBlackTech is a suspected Chinese cyber espionage group that has primarily targeted organizations in East Asia–particularly Taiwan, Japan, and Hong Kong–and the US since at least 2013. BlackTech has used a combination of custom malware, dual-use tools, and living off the land tactics to compromise media, construction, engineering, electronics, and financial company networks.
G0108Blue MockingbirdBlue Mockingbird is a cluster of observed activity involving Monero cryptocurrency-mining payloads in dynamic-link library (DLL) form on Windows systems. The earliest observed Blue Mockingbird tools were created in December 2019.
G0097Bouncing GolfBouncing Golf is a cyberespionage campaign targeting Middle Eastern countries.
G0060BRONZE BUTLERREDBALDKNIGHT, TickBRONZE BUTLER is a cyber espionage group with likely Chinese origins that has been active since at least 2008. The group primarily targets Japanese organizations, particularly those in government, biotechnology, electronics manufacturing, and industrial chemistry.
G0008CarbanakAnunakCarbanak is a cybercriminal group that has used Carbanak malware to target financial institutions since at least 2013. Carbanak may be linked to groups tracked separately as Cobalt Group and FIN7 that have also used Carbanak malware.
G0114ChimeraChimera is a suspected China-based threat group that has been active since at least 2018 targeting the semiconductor industry in Taiwan as well as data from the airline industry.
G0003CleaverThreat Group 2889, TG-2889Cleaver is a threat group that has been attributed to Iranian actors and is responsible for activity tracked as Operation Cleaver. Strong circumstantial evidence suggests Cleaver is linked to Threat Group 2889 (TG-2889).
G0080Cobalt GroupGOLD KINGSWOOD, Cobalt Gang, Cobalt SpiderCobalt Group is a financially motivated threat group that has primarily targeted financial institutions since at least 2016. The group has conducted intrusions to steal money via targeting ATM systems, card processing, payment systems and SWIFT systems. Cobalt Group has mainly targeted banks in Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia. One of the alleged leaders was arrested in Spain in early 2018, but the group still appears to be active. The group has been known to target organizations in order to use their access to then compromise additional victims. Reporting indicates there may be links between Cobalt Group and both the malware Carbanak and the group Carbanak.
G0142ConfuciusConfucius is a cyber espionage group that has primarily targeted military personnel, high-profile personalities, business persons, and government organizations in South Asia since at least 2013. Security researchers have noted similarities between Confucius and Patchwork, particularly in their respective custom malware code and targets.
G0052CopyKittensCopyKittens is an Iranian cyber espionage group that has been operating since at least 2013. It has targeted countries including Israel, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, the U.S., Jordan, and Germany. The group is responsible for the campaign known as Operation Wilted Tulip.
G0132CostaRictoCostaRicto is a suspected hacker-for-hire cyber espionage campaign that has targeted multiple industries worldwide since at least 2019. CostaRicto‘s targets, a large portion of which are financial institutions, are scattered across Europe, the Americas, Asia, Australia, and Africa, with a large concentration in South Asia.
G0070Dark CaracalDark Caracal is threat group that has been attributed to the Lebanese General Directorate of General Security (GDGS) and has operated since at least 2012.
G0012DarkhotelDUBNIUMDarkhotel is a suspected South Korean threat group that has targeted victims primarily in East Asia since at least 2004. The group’s name is based on cyber espionage operations conducted via hotel Internet networks against traveling executives and other select guests. Darkhotel has also conducted spearphishing campaigns and infected victims through peer-to-peer and file sharing networks.
G0079DarkHydrusDarkHydrus is a threat group that has targeted government agencies and educational institutions in the Middle East since at least 2016. The group heavily leverages open-source tools and custom payloads for carrying out attacks.
G0105DarkVishnyaDarkVishnya is a financially motivated threat actor targeting financial institutions in Eastern Europe. In 2017-2018 the group attacked at least 8 banks in this region.
G0009Deep PandaShell Crew, WebMasters, KungFu Kittens, PinkPanther, Black VineDeep Panda is a suspected Chinese threat group known to target many industries, including government, defense, financial, and telecommunications. The intrusion into healthcare company Anthem has been attributed to Deep Panda. This group is also known as Shell Crew, WebMasters, KungFu Kittens, and PinkPanther. Deep Panda also appears to be known as Black Vine based on the attribution of both group names to the Anthem intrusion. Some analysts track Deep Panda and APT19 as the same group, but it is unclear from open source information if the groups are the same.
G0035DragonflyTEMP.Isotope, DYMALLOY, Berserk Bear, TG-4192, Crouching Yeti, IRON LIBERTY, Energetic BearDragonfly is a cyber espionage group that has been attributed to Russia’s Federal Security Service (FSB) Center 16. Active since at least 2010, Dragonfly has targeted defense and aviation companies, government entities, companies related to industrial control systems, and critical infrastructure sectors worldwide through supply chain, spearphishing, and drive-by compromise attacks.
G0017DragonOKDragonOK is a threat group that has targeted Japanese organizations with phishing emails. Due to overlapping TTPs, including similar custom tools, DragonOK is thought to have a direct or indirect relationship with the threat group Moafee. It is known to use a variety of malware, including Sysget/HelloBridge, PlugX, PoisonIvy, FormerFirstRat, NFlog, and NewCT.
G0031Dust StormDust Storm is a threat group that has targeted multiple industries in Japan, South Korea, the United States, Europe, and several Southeast Asian countries.
G0066ElderwoodElderwood Gang, Beijing Group, Sneaky PandaElderwood is a suspected Chinese cyber espionage group that was reportedly responsible for the 2009 Google intrusion known as Operation Aurora. The group has targeted defense organizations, supply chain manufacturers, human rights and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and IT service providers.
G0020EquationEquation is a sophisticated threat group that employs multiple remote access tools. The group is known to use zero-day exploits and has developed the capability to overwrite the firmware of hard disk drives.
G0120EvilnumEvilnum is a financially motivated threat group that has been active since at least 2018.
G0137Ferocious KittenFerocious Kitten is a threat group that has primarily targeted Persian-speaking individuals in Iran since at least 2015.
G0051FIN10FIN10 is a financially motivated threat group that has targeted organizations in North America since at least 2013 through 2016. The group uses stolen data exfiltrated from victims to extort organizations.
G0085FIN4FIN4 is a financially-motivated threat group that has targeted confidential information related to the public financial market, particularly regarding healthcare and pharmaceutical companies, since at least 2013. FIN4 is unique in that they do not infect victims with typical persistent malware, but rather they focus on capturing credentials authorized to access email and other non-public correspondence.
G0053FIN5FIN5 is a financially motivated threat group that has targeted personally identifiable information and payment card information. The group has been active since at least 2008 and has targeted the restaurant, gaming, and hotel industries. The group is made up of actors who likely speak Russian.
G0037FIN6Magecart Group 6, SKELETON SPIDER, ITG08FIN6 is a cyber crime group that has stolen payment card data and sold it for profit on underground marketplaces. This group has aggressively targeted and compromised point of sale (PoS) systems in the hospitality and retail sectors.
G0046FIN7GOLD NIAGARA, ITG14, Carbon SpiderFIN7 is a financially-motivated threat group that has been active since 2013 primarily targeting the U.S. retail, restaurant, and hospitality sectors, often using point-of-sale malware. A portion of FIN7 was run out of a front company called Combi Security. Since 2020 FIN7 shifted operations to a big game hunting (BGH) approach including use of REvil ransomware and their own Ransomware as a Service (RaaS), Darkside. FIN7 may be linked to the Carbanak Group, but there appears to be several groups using Carbanak malware and are therefore tracked separately.
G0061FIN8FIN8 is a financially motivated threat group known to launch tailored spearphishing campaigns targeting the retail, restaurant, and hospitality industries.
G0117Fox KittenUNC757, PIONEER KITTEN, ParisiteFox Kitten is threat actor with a suspected nexus to the Iranian government that has been active since at least 2017 against entities in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe, Australia, and North America. Fox Kitten has targeted multiple industrial verticals including oil and gas, technology, government, defense, healthcare, manufacturing, and engineering.
G0101FrankensteinFrankenstein is a campaign carried out between January and April 2019 by unknown threat actors. The campaign name comes from the actors’ ability to piece together several unrelated components.
G0093GALLIUMOperation Soft CellGALLIUM is a group that has been active since at least 2012, primarily targeting high-profile telecommunications networks. GALLIUM has been identified in some reporting as likely a Chinese state-sponsored group, based in part on tools used and TTPs commonly associated with Chinese threat actors.
G0084GallmakerGallmaker is a cyberespionage group that has targeted victims in the Middle East and has been active since at least December 2017. The group has mainly targeted victims in the defense, military, and government sectors.
G0047Gamaredon GroupIRON TILDEN, Primitive Bear, ACTINIUM, Armageddon, Shuckworm, DEV-0157Gamaredon Group is a suspected Russian cyber espionage threat group that has targeted military, NGO, judiciary, law enforcement, and non-profit organizations in Ukraine since at least 2013. The name Gamaredon Group comes from a misspelling of the word “Armageddon”, which was detected in the adversary’s early campaigns.In November 2021, the Ukrainian government publicly attributed Gamaredon Group to Russia’s Federal Security Service (FSB) Center 18.
G0036GCMANGCMAN is a threat group that focuses on targeting banks for the purpose of transferring money to e-currency services.
G0115GOLD SOUTHFIELDGOLD SOUTHFIELD is a financially motivated threat group active since at least 2019 that operates the REvil Ransomware-as-a Service (RaaS). GOLD SOUTHFIELD provides backend infrastructure for affiliates recruited on underground forums to perpetrate high value deployments.
G0078Gorgon GroupGorgon Group is a threat group consisting of members who are suspected to be Pakistan-based or have other connections to Pakistan. The group has performed a mix of criminal and targeted attacks, including campaigns against government organizations in the United Kingdom, Spain, Russia, and the United States.
G0043Group5Group5 is a threat group with a suspected Iranian nexus, though this attribution is not definite. The group has targeted individuals connected to the Syrian opposition via spearphishing and watering holes, normally using Syrian and Iranian themes. Group5 has used two commonly available remote access tools (RATs), njRAT and NanoCore, as well as an Android RAT, DroidJack.
G0125HAFNIUMOperation Exchange MarauderHAFNIUM is a likely state-sponsored cyber espionage group operating out of China that has been active since at least January 2021. HAFNIUM primarily targets entities in the US across a number of industry sectors, including infectious disease researchers, law firms, higher education institutions, defense contractors, policy think tanks, and NGOs.
G1001HEXANEHEXANE is a threat group that has targeted ICS organization within the oil & gas, and telecommunications sectors. Many of the targeted organizations have been located in the Middle East including Kuwait. HEXANE‘s targeting of telecommunications has been speculated to be part of an effort to establish man-in-the-middle capabilities throughout the region. HEXANE‘s TTPs appear similar to APT33 and OilRig but due to differences in victims and tools it is tracked as a separate entity.
G0126HigaisaHigaisa is a threat group suspected to have South Korean origins. Higaisa has targeted government, public, and trade organizations in North Korea; however, they have also carried out attacks in China, Japan, Russia, Poland, and other nations. Higaisa was first disclosed in early 2019 but is assessed to have operated as early as 2009.
G0072HoneybeeHoneybee is a campaign led by an unknown actor that targets humanitarian aid organizations and has been active in Vietnam, Singapore, Argentina, Japan, Indonesia, and Canada. It has been an active operation since August of 2017 and as recently as February 2018.
G0100InceptionInception Framework, Cloud AtlasInception is a cyber espionage group active since at least 2014. The group has targeted multiple industries and governmental entities primarily in Russia, but has also been active in the United States and throughout Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.
G0136IndigoZebraIndigoZebra is a suspected Chinese cyber espionage group that has been targeting Central Asian governments since at least 2014.
G0119Indrik SpiderEvil CorpIndrik Spider is a Russia-based cybercriminal group that as been active since at least 2014. Indrik Spider initially started with the Dridex banking Trojan, and then by 2017 they began running ransomware operations using BitPaymerWastedLocker, and Hades ransomware.
G0004Ke3changAPT15, Mirage, Vixen Panda, GREF, Playful Dragon, RoyalAPT, NICKELKe3chang is a threat group attributed to actors operating out of China. Ke3chang has targeted oil, government, diplomatic, military, and NGOs in Central and South America, the Caribbean, Europe, and North America since at least 2010.
G0094KimsukySTOLEN PENCIL, Thallium, Black Banshee, Velvet ChollimaKimsuky is a North Korea-based cyber espionage group that has been active since at least 2012. The group initially focused on targeting South Korean government entities, think tanks, and individuals identified as experts in various fields, and expanded its operations to include the United States, Russia, Europe, and the UN. Kimsuky has focused its intelligence collection activities on foreign policy and national security issues related to the Korean peninsula, nuclear policy, and sanctions.Kimsuky was assessed to be responsible for the 2014 Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co. compromise; other notable campaigns include Operation STOLEN PENCIL (2018), Operation Kabar Cobra (2019), and Operation Smoke Screen (2019).North Korean group definitions are known to have significant overlap, and some security researchers report all North Korean state-sponsored cyber activity under the name Lazarus Group instead of tracking clusters or subgroups.
G0032Lazarus GroupLabyrinth Chollima, HIDDEN COBRA, Guardians of Peace, ZINC, NICKEL ACADEMYLazarus Group is a North Korean state-sponsored cyber threat group that has been attributed to the Reconnaissance General Bureau. The group has been active since at least 2009 and was reportedly responsible for the November 2014 destructive wiper attack against Sony Pictures Entertainment as part of a campaign named Operation Blockbuster by Novetta. Malware used by Lazarus Group correlates to other reported campaigns, including Operation Flame, Operation 1Mission, Operation Troy, DarkSeoul, and Ten Days of Rain.North Korean group definitions are known to have significant overlap, and some security researchers report all North Korean state-sponsored cyber activity under the name Lazarus Group instead of tracking clusters or subgroups, such as AndarielAPT37APT38, and Kimsuky.
G0140LazyScripterLazyScripter is threat group that has mainly targeted the airlines industry since at least 2018, primarily using open-source toolsets.
G0077LeafminerRaspiteLeafminer is an Iranian threat group that has targeted government organizations and business entities in the Middle East since at least early 2017.
G0065LeviathanMUDCARP, Kryptonite Panda, Gadolinium, BRONZE MOHAWK, TEMP.Jumper, APT40, TEMP.PeriscopeLeviathan is a Chinese state-sponsored cyber espionage group that has been attributed to the Ministry of State Security’s (MSS) Hainan State Security Department and an affiliated front company. Active since at least 2009, Leviathan has targeted the following sectors: academia, aerospace/aviation, biomedical, defense industrial base, government, healthcare, manufacturing, maritime, and transportation across the US, Canada, Europe, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia.
G0030Lotus BlossomDRAGONFISH, Spring DragonLotus Blossom is a threat group that has targeted government and military organizations in Southeast Asia.
G0095MacheteAPT-C-43, El MacheteMachete is a suspected Spanish-speaking cyber espionage group that has been active since at least 2010. It has primarily focused its operations within Latin America, with a particular emphasis on Venezuela, but also in the US, Europe, Russia, and parts of Asia. Machete generally targets high-profile organizations such as government institutions, intelligence services, and military units, as well as telecommunications and power companies.
G0059Magic HoundTA453, COBALT ILLUSION, Charming Kitten, ITG18, Phosphorus, Newscaster, APT35Magic Hound is an Iranian-sponsored threat group that conducts long term, resource-intensive cyber espionage operations, likely on behalf of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps. They have targeted U.S. and Middle Eastern government and military personnel, academics, journalists, and organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), via complex social engineering campaigns since at least 2014.
G0045menuPassCicada, POTASSIUM, Stone Panda, APT10, Red Apollo, CVNX, HOGFISHmenuPass is a threat group that has been active since at least 2006. Individual members of menuPass are known to have acted in association with the Chinese Ministry of State Security’s (MSS) Tianjin State Security Bureau and worked for the Huaying Haitai Science and Technology Development Company.menuPass has targeted healthcare, defense, aerospace, finance, maritime, biotechnology, energy, and government sectors globally, with an emphasis on Japanese organizations. In 2016 and 2017, the group is known to have targeted managed IT service providers (MSPs), manufacturing and mining companies, and a university.
G0002MoafeeMoafee is a threat group that appears to operate from the Guandong Province of China. Due to overlapping TTPs, including similar custom tools, Moafee is thought to have a direct or indirect relationship with the threat group DragonOK.
G0103MofangMofang is a likely China-based cyber espionage group, named for its frequent practice of imitating a victim’s infrastructure. This adversary has been observed since at least May 2012 conducting focused attacks against government and critical infrastructure in Myanmar, as well as several other countries and sectors including military, automobile, and weapons industries.
G0021MoleratsOperation Molerats, Gaza CybergangMolerats is an Arabic-speaking, politically-motivated threat group that has been operating since 2012. The group’s victims have primarily been in the Middle East, Europe, and the United States.
G0069MuddyWaterEarth Vetala , MERCURY, Static Kitten, Seedworm, TEMP.ZagrosMuddyWater is an Iranian threat group that has primarily targeted Middle Eastern nations, and has also targeted European and North American nations. The group’s victims are mainly in the telecommunications, government (IT services), and oil sectors. Activity from this group was previously linked to FIN7, but the group is believed to be a distinct group possibly motivated by espionage.
G0129Mustang PandaTA416, RedDelta, BRONZE PRESIDENTMustang Panda is a China-based cyber espionage threat actor that was first observed in 2017 but may have been conducting operations since at least 2014. Mustang Panda has targeted government entities, nonprofits, religious, and other non-governmental organizations in the U.S., Europe, Mongolia, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Vietnam, among others.
G0019NaikonNaikon is assessed to be a state-sponsored cyber espionage group attributed to the Chinese People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) Chengdu Military Region Second Technical Reconnaissance Bureau (Military Unit Cover Designator 78020). Active since at least 2010, Naikon has primarily conducted operations against government, military, and civil organizations in Southeast Asia, as well as against international bodies such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).While Naikon shares some characteristics with APT30, the two groups do not appear to be exact matches.
G0055NEODYMIUMNEODYMIUM is an activity group that conducted a campaign in May 2016 and has heavily targeted Turkish victims. The group has demonstrated similarity to another activity group called PROMETHIUM due to overlapping victim and campaign characteristics. NEODYMIUM is reportedly associated closely with BlackOasis operations, but evidence that the group names are aliases has not been identified.
G0014Night DragonNight Dragon is a campaign name for activity involving a threat group that has conducted activity originating primarily in China.
G0133Nomadic OctopusDustSquadNomadic Octopus is a Russian-speaking cyberespionage threat group that has primarily targeted Central Asia, including local governments, diplomatic missions, and individuals, since at least 2014. Nomadic Octopus has been observed conducting campaigns involving Android and Windows malware, mainly using the Delphi programming language, and building custom variants.
G0049OilRigCOBALT GYPSY, IRN2, HELIX KITTEN, APT34OilRig is a suspected Iranian threat group that has targeted Middle Eastern and international victims since at least 2014. The group has targeted a variety of sectors, including financial, government, energy, chemical, and telecommunications. It appears the group carries out supply chain attacks, leveraging the trust relationship between organizations to attack their primary targets. FireEye assesses that the group works on behalf of the Iranian government based on infrastructure details that contain references to Iran, use of Iranian infrastructure, and targeting that aligns with nation-state interests.
G0116Operation WocaoOperation Wocao described activities carried out by a China-based cyber espionage adversary. Operation Wocao targeted entities within the government, managed service providers, energy, health care, and technology sectors across several countries, including China, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Operation Wocao used similar TTPs and tools to APT20, suggesting a possible overlap.
G0071OrangewormOrangeworm is a group that has targeted organizations in the healthcare sector in the United States, Europe, and Asia since at least 2015, likely for the purpose of corporate espionage.
G0040PatchworkHangover Group, Dropping Elephant, Chinastrats, MONSOON, Operation HangoverPatchwork is a cyberespionage group that was first observed in December 2015. While the group has not been definitively attributed, circumstantial evidence suggests the group may be a pro-Indian or Indian entity. Patchwork has been seen targeting industries related to diplomatic and government agencies. Much of the code used by this group was copied and pasted from online forums. Patchwork was also seen operating spearphishing campaigns targeting U.S. think tank groups in March and April of 2018.
G0011PittyTigerPittyTiger is a threat group believed to operate out of China that uses multiple different types of malware to maintain command and control.
G0068PLATINUMPLATINUM is an activity group that has targeted victims since at least 2009. The group has focused on targets associated with governments and related organizations in South and Southeast Asia.
G0033Poseidon GroupPoseidon Group is a Portuguese-speaking threat group that has been active since at least 2005. The group has a history of using information exfiltrated from victims to blackmail victim companies into contracting the Poseidon Group as a security firm.
G0056PROMETHIUMStrongPityPROMETHIUM is an activity group focused on espionage that has been active since at least 2012. The group has conducted operations globally with a heavy emphasis on Turkish targets. PROMETHIUM has demonstrated similarity to another activity group called NEODYMIUM due to overlapping victim and campaign characteristics.
G0024Putter PandaAPT2, MSUpdaterPutter Panda is a Chinese threat group that has been attributed to Unit 61486 of the 12th Bureau of the PLA’s 3rd General Staff Department (GSD).
G0075RancorRancor is a threat group that has led targeted campaigns against the South East Asia region. Rancor uses politically-motivated lures to entice victims to open malicious documents.
G0106RockeRocke is an alleged Chinese-speaking adversary whose primary objective appeared to be cryptojacking, or stealing victim system resources for the purposes of mining cryptocurrency. The name Rocke comes from the email address “rocke@live.cn” used to create the wallet which held collected cryptocurrency. Researchers have detected overlaps between Rocke and the Iron Cybercrime Group, though this attribution has not been confirmed.
G0048RTMRTM is a cybercriminal group that has been active since at least 2015 and is primarily interested in users of remote banking systems in Russia and neighboring countries. The group uses a Trojan by the same name (RTM).
G0034Sandworm TeamELECTRUM, Telebots, IRON VIKING, BlackEnergy (Group), Quedagh, VOODOO BEARSandworm Team is a destructive threat group that has been attributed to Russia’s General Staff Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU) Main Center for Special Technologies (GTsST) military unit 74455. This group has been active since at least 2009.In October 2020, the US indicted six GRU Unit 74455 officers associated with Sandworm Team for the following cyber operations: the 2015 and 2016 attacks against Ukrainian electrical companies and government organizations, the 2017 worldwide NotPetya attack, targeting of the 2017 French presidential campaign, the 2018 Olympic Destroyer attack against the Winter Olympic Games, the 2018 operation against the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, and attacks against the country of Georgia in 2018 and 2019. Some of these were conducted with the assistance of GRU Unit 26165, which is also referred to as APT28.
G0029Scarlet MimicScarlet Mimic is a threat group that has targeted minority rights activists. This group has not been directly linked to a government source, but the group’s motivations appear to overlap with those of the Chinese government. While there is some overlap between IP addresses used by Scarlet Mimic and Putter Panda, it has not been concluded that the groups are the same.
G0104SharpshooterOperation Sharpshooter is the name of a cyber espionage campaign discovered in October 2018 targeting nuclear, defense, energy, and financial companies. Though overlaps between this adversary and Lazarus Group have been noted, definitive links have not been established.
G0121SidewinderT-APT-04, RattlesnakeSidewinder is a suspected Indian threat actor group that has been active since at least 2012. They have been observed targeting government, military, and business entities throughout Asia, primarily focusing on Pakistan, China, Nepal, and Afghanistan.
G0091SilenceWHISPER SPIDERSilence is a financially motivated threat actor targeting financial institutions in different countries. The group was first seen in June 2016. Their main targets reside in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Poland and Kazakhstan. They compromised various banking systems, including the Russian Central Bank’s Automated Workstation Client, ATMs, and card processing.
G0122Silent LibrarianTA407, COBALT DICKENSSilent Librarian is a group that has targeted research and proprietary data at universities, government agencies, and private sector companies worldwide since at least 2013. Members of Silent Librarian are known to have been affiliated with the Iran-based Mabna Institute which has conducted cyber intrusions at the behest of the government of Iran, specifically the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC).
G0083SilverTerrierSilverTerrier is a Nigerian threat group that has been seen active since 2014. SilverTerrier mainly targets organizations in high technology, higher education, and manufacturing.
G0054SowbugSowbug is a threat group that has conducted targeted attacks against organizations in South America and Southeast Asia, particularly government entities, since at least 2015.
G0038Stealth FalconStealth Falcon is a threat group that has conducted targeted spyware attacks against Emirati journalists, activists, and dissidents since at least 2012. Circumstantial evidence suggests there could be a link between this group and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) government, but that has not been confirmed.
G0041StriderProjectSauronStrider is a threat group that has been active since at least 2011 and has targeted victims in Russia, China, Sweden, Belgium, Iran, and Rwanda.
G0039SuckflySuckfly is a China-based threat group that has been active since at least 2014.
G0062TA459TA459 is a threat group believed to operate out of China that has targeted countries including Russia, Belarus, Mongolia, and others.
G0092TA505Hive0065TA505 is a financially motivated threat group that has been active since at least 2014. The group is known for frequently changing malware and driving global trends in criminal malware distribution.
G0127TA551GOLD CABIN, ShathakTA551 is a financially-motivated threat group that has been active since at least 2018. The group has primarily targeted English, German, Italian, and Japanese speakers through email-based malware distribution campaigns.
G0139TeamTNTTeamTNT is a threat group that has primarily targeted cloud and containerized environments. The group as been active since at least October 2019 and has mainly focused its efforts on leveraging cloud and container resources to deploy cryptocurrency miners in victim environments.
G0088TEMP.VelesXENOTIMETEMP.Veles is a Russia-based threat group that has targeted critical infrastructure. The group has been observed utilizing TRITON, a malware framework designed to manipulate industrial safety systems.
G0089The White CompanyThe White Company is a likely state-sponsored threat actor with advanced capabilities. From 2017 through 2018, the group led an espionage campaign called Operation Shaheen targeting government and military organizations in Pakistan.
G0028Threat Group-1314TG-1314Threat Group-1314 is an unattributed threat group that has used compromised credentials to log into a victim’s remote access infrastructure.
G0027Threat Group-3390Earth Smilodon, TG-3390, Emissary Panda, BRONZE UNION, APT27, Iron Tiger, LuckyMouseThreat Group-3390 is a Chinese threat group that has extensively used strategic Web compromises to target victims. The group has been active since at least 2010 and has targeted organizations in the aerospace, government, defense, technology, energy, manufacturing and gambling/betting sectors.
G0076ThripThrip is an espionage group that has targeted satellite communications, telecoms, and defense contractor companies in the U.S. and Southeast Asia. The group uses custom malware as well as “living off the land” techniques.
G0131Tonto TeamEarth Akhlut, BRONZE HUNTLEY, CactusPete, Karma PandaTonto Team is a suspected Chinese state-sponsored cyber espionage threat group that has primarily targeted South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and the United States since at least 2009; by 2020 they expanded operations to include other Asian as well as Eastern European countries. Tonto Team has targeted government, military, energy, mining, financial, education, healthcare, and technology organizations, including through the Heartbeat Campaign (2009-2012) and Operation Bitter Biscuit (2017).
G0134Transparent TribeCOPPER FIELDSTONE, APT36, Mythic Leopard, ProjectMTransparent Tribe is a suspected Pakistan-based threat group that has been active since at least 2013, primarily targeting diplomatic, defense, and research organizations in India and Afghanistan.
G0081Tropic TrooperPirate Panda, KeyBoyTropic Trooper is an unaffiliated threat group that has led targeted campaigns against targets in Taiwan, the Philippines, and Hong Kong. Tropic Trooper focuses on targeting government, healthcare, transportation, and high-tech industries and has been active since 2011.
G0010TurlaIRON HUNTER, Group 88, Belugasturgeon, Waterbug, WhiteBear, VENOMOUS BEAR, Snake, KryptonTurla is a Russian-based threat group that has infected victims in over 45 countries, spanning a range of industries including government, embassies, military, education, research and pharmaceutical companies since 2004. Heightened activity was seen in mid-2015. Turla is known for conducting watering hole and spearphishing campaigns and leveraging in-house tools and malware. Turla’s espionage platform is mainly used against Windows machines, but has also been seen used against macOS and Linux machines.
G0123Volatile CedarLebanese CedarVolatile Cedar is a Lebanese threat group that has targeted individuals, companies, and institutions worldwide. Volatile Cedar has been operating since 2012 and is motivated by political and ideological interests.
G0107WhiteflyWhitefly is a cyber espionage group that has been operating since at least 2017. The group has targeted organizations based mostly in Singapore across a wide variety of sectors, and is primarily interested in stealing large amounts of sensitive information. The group has been linked to an attack against Singapore’s largest public health organization, SingHealth.
G0124WindigoThe Windigo group has been operating since at least 2011, compromising thousands of Linux and Unix servers using the Ebury SSH backdoor to create a spam botnet. Despite law enforcement intervention against the creators, Windigo operators continued updating Ebury through 2019.
G0112WindshiftBahamutWindshift is a threat group that has been active since at least 2017, targeting specific individuals for surveillance in government departments and critical infrastructure across the Middle East.
G0044Winnti GroupBlackflyWinnti Group is a threat group with Chinese origins that has been active since at least 2010. The group has heavily targeted the gaming industry, but it has also expanded the scope of its targeting. Some reporting suggests a number of other groups, including AxiomAPT17, and Ke3chang, are closely linked to Winnti Group.
G0090WIRTEWIRTE is a threat group that has been active since at least August 2018. WIRTE has targeted government, diplomatic, financial, military, legal, and technology organizations in the Middle East and Europe.
G0102Wizard SpiderUNC1878, TEMP.MixMaster, Grim SpiderWizard Spider is a Russia-based financially motivated threat group originally known for the creation and deployment of TrickBot since at least 2016. Wizard Spider possesses a diverse arsenal of tools and has conducted ransomware campaigns against a variety of organizations, ranging from major corporations to hospitals.
G0128ZIRCONIUMAPT31ZIRCONIUM is a threat group operating out of China, active since at least 2017, that has targeted individuals associated with the 2020 US presidential election and prominent leaders in the international affairs community.